Tossa de Mar
Shire: La Selva
Altitude: 5 m
The Tossa de Mar coastline extends from the Vallpresona stream, which forms a cove that bears the same name, to the east, to Cala Morisca on the Lloret de Mar side. In the middle we find several coves, almost all generated by torrents or streams. In Tossa they unite the beauty of its maritime situation, with its islands and islets, with the historical landscape of the beginning of the town: its 12th century walls that rise majestically and imposing on the granite massif called Cabo de Tossa.
Tossa de Mar is an essentially Mediterranean town that has maintained the character of its fishing district and has made great efforts to preserve its natural environment.
The coastline, interspersed with numerous beaches and coves, forms one of the most emblematic landscapes of the Costa Brava. The mountain area, with a good layout of marked trails, will allow nature lovers to enjoy one of Tossa's great treasures: its natural heritage and landscape.
This natural beauty is complemented by an important historical and artistic heritage, since as it happened in most of the coastal promontories of the current regions of Empordà and La Selva, the Chief of Tossa was inhabited by the indigets, the population Iberian pre-Roman. The name of the town was called Turissa, which with the passage of time phonetically evolved to the current name of Tossa.
Some of its most important elements of the population are those that we detail below.
The walled area of Vila Vella (13th century), declared a historic-artistic monument, is the only example of a fortified medieval town that still exists on the Catalan coast.
We also find the archaeological remains of the Roman town of Los Almendros (sI BC-V AD), one of the most interesting in this ancient Roman province.
This villa seems to have belonged to a high military position in the Roman Empire. It was dedicated especially to the cultivation of the vine and the export of wine for mass consumption, which was normally sent to Rome for the consumption of soldiers in the field, it is a classic example of agricultural exploitation in the Roman Mediterranean area, which perfectly combines the exploitation of the territory, which in the case of the town of Los Almendros extended through a good part of the municipality of Tossa, with the luxury and comforts of its owners. The activity of this town was gradually extinguished until the s. VIII, time of the Islamic invasion and the subsequent process of feudalization, which caused radical changes in the social sphere and in the agrarian space.
We cannot forget the painting collections of what was the first Museum of Contemporary Art on the Peninsula.
Tossa de Mar offers you a modern tourist infrastructure, equipped with a wide range of tourist accommodation and complemented with a good gastronomic, sports, commercial, entertainment and recreational offer.
In fact, the first written news that refer to Tossa appears in a document from the year 881. In the year 966, the count of Barcelona left the monastery of Santa María de Ripoll, founded by his grandfather, the Tossa valley in his will. with the churches of Saint-Lions and Saint Vincent. The term was sparsely populated by peasants who lived in the interior in small farmhouses and borders, and by fishermen who gathered around the ruins of the Roman town of Los Almendros, where their cemetery was also located. But the monastery did not take possession of the donation until the year 1097. Almost a century later, in the year 1186, thanks to the progressive reconquest of the sea lanes by Christendom, the increase in population and the request of the tOSSENSE, who were continually threatened by pirates who came from North Africa, Abbot Ramon de Berga granted a franchise and settlement letter and had a castle built on the highest part (now disappeared) of the Chief of Tossa, as well as a walled enclosure, in order to protect its future inhabitants. This is how little by little the promontory began to be urbanized, which, with few changes, has been maintained to this day, so that a stable population could dedicate itself to trade and fishing.
From s. In the 16th century, the population began to expand outside the walls and the first buildings were erected in the Sa Roqueta neighborhood and following the royal road, which originated the current population.
The 16th and 17th centuries were the ones with the greatest maritime development in Tossa. There was an important fishing fleet and numerous coastal vessels, which were dedicated to the trade of products from the sea and the forest: salting, firewood, charcoal, cork, salted meat, etc. In the S. XVIII there were even some ships of Tossa families that were dedicated to trade with America.
The s. XVII and especially the s. XVIII were the centuries of a greater demographic growth in Tossa, going from a population that had about 80-90 houses in the s. XV, to the amount of 500 houses in the s. XVIII.
From s. In the 19th century, maritime activity began to decline and was practically concentrated on fishing and salting. Meanwhile, a new economic activity was growing based on the cork industry and the production of stoppers, which continued until the beginning of the s. XX.
The 20th century made Tossa welcome artists and intellectuals of all kinds and also an incipient tourism, mainly led by people from Barcelona. The civil war and the second world war, but they put an end to this time.
The difficult post-war years came and, in 1950, the filming of the movie "Pandora and the Flying Dutchman", which was the biggest promotion of Tossa in all history, giving way to a tourist industry that has lasted until the present.
As for gastronomy, fresh fish and seafood are undoubtedly the star products of its gastronomy, but Tossa's cuisine also includes a significant presence of vegetables, legumes, meats and fruits, often cooked in casseroles on the basis of some stir-fries made with patience, and with the final touch of flavor provided by the bites so characteristic of the area.
To publicize the local gastronomy, Tossa de Mar celebrates three gastronomic campaigns in which several restaurants in the municipality participate: TOSSENSE Traditional Cuisine, which is celebrated throughout the year, Casserole Noodles, in June, and the Kitchen of the Summit and tomb, during the month of September.
The natural environment of Tossa also proposes five routes on foot, two of which circulate along the coastal path, and four routes by mountain bike to show the diversity of landscapes and the richness of the environment through the Ardenya Cadiretes massif.
The routes along the coastal path allow you to appreciate the beauty of the typical Mediterranean landscape of the Costa Brava, such as cliffs, turquoise waters and coves, constituting a natural setting of extraordinary landscape value.
These routes are marked vertically and with painted stripes as they pass.